Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Diaphragmatic Breathing: A Skill to Improve Your Performance

Knowing how to take a full, deep breath will benefit you throughout your life in all areas of your life. A full breath cycle spreads oxygen throughout the body, gets rid of waste gasses like carbon dioxide, and stimulates the spine and internal organs. Additionally, deep breathing is an essential part of maximizing any form of exercise.

Diaphragmatic deep breathing is the first step to learning to breathe well. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that sits below the lungs, horizontally bisecting the trunk of the body. When you inhale, the diaphragm contracts and flattens downward allowing the lungs to expand to draw in air. Exhaling allows the diaphragm to return to its original shape, forcing air out of the lungs.

In Pilates, the dynamic of full breathing -- big inhales and exhales – is used to initiate and power the exercises. Therefore, most Pilates exercises are taught with breathing patterns. Proper diaphragmatic breathing is efficient, energizing and relaxing. Not only does it help with maximizing exercise, it also is a fantastic technique for stress reduction.

video
Steps to Diaphragmatic Breathing:
  1. Begin lying on your back with knees bent. Place one hand resting lightly on your lower abdomen to feel your breath move your body.
  2. Relax and depress your shoulders.
  3. Relax your spine in neutral position, the natural curves of the spine should be present.
  4. Breathe in slowly through your nose. Be aware of the air flowing into your upper chest and down your spine. You should feel your sides and lower ribs expand as well as your upper, mid-and lower back. Allow the deep inhale to push your abdomen out a little bit.
  5. As you inhale, be sure to keep the shoulders relaxed and depressed.
  6. Begin to exhale by slowly pushing breath out in the reverse order that you breathed it in. Contract your lower abs, then mid and upper abs. Allow your ribs to pull in, and last, let your chest to drop as you fully expel all the air.
  7. Repeat this exercise a few times until each step flows smoothly into the next.

Imprinting: A Skill to Improve Your Performance

One of the key skills in properly executing many of the exercises in Pilates is engaging your core muscles. The correct level of activity in core muscles should be 30% of their maximum so that they have enough energy to contract continuously. Failure to contract your core muscles properly will promote unwanted contraction of the larger muscles surrounding the core. These will then take over the movements thus defeating the goal of the exercises.

video

Steps to Imprinting:
  1. Lie supine with arms by your sides, knees flexed, feet flat on the floor with a neutral spine (spine with natural curves present)
  2. Palpate the transversus abdominus to know whether you are contracting the correct muscles. Place your hands on your anterior superior iliac spines (asis) (the bony parts at the front of your hips). Move your hands medially an inch (towards your navel) and inferiorly an inch (towards your toes). Your hands should now be directly over the transversus abdominus muscle. Keep your hands in this position. When you contract your core correctly you should feel a gentle tightening under your fingers when they are in this position. If you feel a 'bulge' you are contracting too much.
  3. Inhale.
  4. As you begin to slowly exhale, relax your jaw and neck muscles.
  5. Depress your shoulders and relax them.
  6. Relax your ribcage. Allow the sternum to drop and the back ribs move to the floor.
  7. Relax your abdominal muscles. Let them drop down toward your spine. Focus trying to lower your belly button down towards the floor. Relax your spine. Let it get long and melt into the floor. Palpate for a contraction of the transversus. Now ease the contraction off to about 30% of its max.
  8. Relax your hips and legs. Use only as much energy as it takes to keep your knees up and legs in alignment.
  9. Next, visualize the imprint in your mind's eye.Visualize your spine lengthening and sinking down to the mat, lightly imprinting. Just let it happen. As you relax, you can breathe deeply into the spaces opening up between your vertebrae. . Imagine that if you were to get up, the print your body left would be perfectly balanced.
  10. Perform 3-5 repetitions of imprinting with diaphragmatic breathing.

Articulating Spine: A Skill to Improve Your Performance

This exercise is a gentle warm-up for the spine and abdominal muscles. It also works the lower body and helps coordinate breath and movement.

video

Steps for Articulating Spine:

  1. Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor about hip-distance apart. Align feet, ankles, and knees.
  2. Spine should be in neutral with the natural curves of the spine present.
  3. Begin diaphragmatic breathing.
  4. Inhale and on the next exhale, begin to tilt pelvis posteriorly by engaging the abdominal muscles and pulling your bellybutton down toward your spine. Let that action continue so that the abs press the lower spine into the floor. Press down through your feet allowing the tailbone to begin to curl up toward the ceiling. The hips raise, as each part of your spine lifts off the floor beginning with the sacrum, through the lumbar and to the thoracic area lifting no higher than the inferior angles of the scapulas.
  5. Maintain a straight line from your hips to your shoulders. Do not arch beyond this point. Support this movement with by contracting the abdominals, glutes, hamstrings, adductors and quadriceps.
  6. Inhale.
  7. Exhale. As you let your breath go, use abdominal control to roll the spine back down to the floor, one vertebrae at a time.
  8. Inhale as you release to neutral spine. Prepare to repeat the exercise by initiating the pelvic tilt on the exhale.
  9. Perform 3-5 repetitions of this exercise.

Sunday, March 6, 2011

Roll Down

video


Description
Sit up straight with knees bent and feet flat on the floor, hip distance apart, a comfortable distance away from body. Align ears over shoulders which are aligned over hips. Extend arms slightly. Inhale and lift up from the base of spine. Exhale. Begin to roll down spine, pulling navel in toward spine, creating a C Curve with lower back. Control movement from the center. Press spine down onto the mat one vertebra at a time. Roll slowly all the way down until lying flat. Arms are back by sides, palms facing down. There should be a small arch in lower back.

Analysis:
This open kinetic chain exercise is divided into four phases for analysis: (1) Neutral seated position; (2) trunk flexion phase to C-curve position; (3) C-curve position to curl down position; (4) Neutral supine position.

1. Roll-Down Stance Phase (neutral seated position): Sit up straight with knees bent and feet flat on the floor, hip distance apart, a comfortable distance away from body. Align ears over shoulders which are aligned over hips. Extend arms slightly.

Shoulder Girdle L & R L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius, rhomboids (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L & R L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): biceps grachii, brachialis, brachioradialis (concentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in flexion of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis (concentric)
Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak flexion of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris,flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus (concentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): illiapsoas, rectus femoris, Sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, gluteus medius anterior fibers, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric)


2. Roll-Down Prepartory Phase (trunk flexion phase to C-curve position): Inhale and lift up from the base of spine. Exhale. Begin to roll down spine, pulling navel in toward spine, creating a C Curve with lower back.


Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius, rhomboids (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): biceps grachii, brachialis, brachioradialis (concentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in flexion of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum superficialis (concentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak flexion of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris,flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus (concentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement:Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius posterior fibers (eccentric)

3. Roll-Down Movement Phase (C-curve position to curl down position): Control movement from the center. Press spine down onto the mat one vertebra at a time. Roll slowly all the way down until lying flat.



Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius, rhomboids (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement:Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius posterior fibers (eccentric)

4. Roll-Down Recovery (neutral supine position): Arms are back by sides, palms facing down. There should be a small arch in lower back.

Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric):

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): illiapsoas, rectus femoris, Sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, gluteus medius anterior fibers, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric)

Thursday, February 24, 2011

Roll Up

video

Description

Begin by lying on floor legs straight, arms over head next to ears, fingertips pointing behind you. Anchor scapula and keep ribs down.

Inhale. Press shoulders down to floor as you begin to bring arms up over head. As arms pass ears drop into the head nod as you begin to peel your vertebrae off the floor one at a time. Exhale. Deepen the curve of abdominals as you exhale. Knit ribs together in front, and in one smooth motion, roll body in an "up and over" motion toward toes. Gaze will be down as you keep head in line with curve of the spine. Shoulders stay down with the scapula settled on the back. Reach for toes. Keep form: legs straight, abs pulled in, spine long, chest open and shoulders down. Legs should be straight with energy reaching out through the heels throughout exercise.

Exhale. Bring breath fully into pelvis and back while contracting lower abs, reach tailbone under and begin to unfurl, vertebrae by vertebrae, down to floor. Inhale initiates motion until about half way down. Continue to set one vertebrae at a time on floor. Arms still outstretched and following the natural line of the shoulders as you roll down. Legs remain on floor.

Once shoulders arrive on floor, arms go with head as they reach back to starting position.


Analysis:
This open kinetic chain exercise is divided into four phases for analysis: (1) Neutral supine position; (2) trunk flexion; (3) C-curve position to curl down position; (4) Neutral supine position


1. Roll Up Stance Phase (neutral supine position): Begin by lying on floor legs straight, arms over head next to ears, fingertips pointing behind you. Anchor scapula and keep ribs down.


Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Elevation/upward rotation
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius and rhomboids (isometric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (isometric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement: None
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): iliapsoas, rectus femoris, sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (isometric)


2. Roll Up Prepatory Phase (trunk flexion): Inhale. Press shoulders down to floor as you begin to bring arms up over head. As arms pass ears drop into the head nod as you begin to peel your vertebrae off the floor one at a time. Exhale. Deepen the curve of abdominals as you exhale. Knit ribs together in front, and in one smooth motion, roll body in an "up and over" motion toward toes. Gaze will be down as you keep head in line with curve of the spine. Shoulders stay down with the scapula settled on the back. Reach for toes. Keep form: legs straight, abs pulled in, spine long, chest open and shoulders down. Legs should be straight with energy reaching out through the heels throughout exercise.

Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Depression/downward rotation
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): illiapsoas, rectus femoris, Sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, gluteus medius anterior fibers, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric)

3. Roll Up Movement Phase (C-curve position to curl down position): Exhale. Bring breath fully into pelvis and back while contracting lower abs, reach tailbone under and begin to unfurl, vertebrae by vertebrae, down to floor. Inhale initiates motion until about half way down. Continue to set one vertebrae at a time on floor. Arms still outstretched and following the natural line of the shoulders as you roll down. Legs remain on floor.



Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius, rhomboids (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement:Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius posterior fibers (eccentric)


4. Roll Up Recovery Phase (neutral supine position): Once shoulders arrive on floor, arms go with head as they reach back to starting position.




Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Elevation/upward rotation
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Levator scapulae, serratus anterior, upper and middle trapezius and rhomboids (isometric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Upper pectoralis major and anterior deltoid (isometric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement: None
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): iliapsoas, rectus femoris, sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (isometric)

Roll Over

video

Description
Begin in Basic Pilates Stance, lying on back with legs straight up, hips in 90 degree angle, extending through heels, small arch in lower back, arms by sides on floor. Inhale. Lower legs 6”.

Exhale. Using lower abs, raise legs back to Pilates Stance and rock legs back while lifting hips. Continue using abdominals and draw hips and legs over until legs are parallel to chest. Release lower back. Keep chest open and use pressure from backs of arms and hands to help push over and stabilize the movement. Continue the deepening of the abdominals as you roll onto broad part of shoulders. Do not roll on to neck.

Inhale. Flex feet, lengthen back of legs and send energy out through heels. Take legs to shoulder width apart. Exhale. Allow legs to lower toward chest as you use abdominal control to slowly place each vertebrae down on mat, one at a time.

When sacrum reaches floor, bring legs back together in Pilates Stance. Inhale. Bring legs together and lower slightly to begin again.

Analysis:
This open kinetic chain exercise is divided into four phases for analysis: (1) Basic Pilates Stance; (2) trunk flexion to roll-over position; (3) roll over position to curl down position; (4) Basic Pilates Stance.

1. Roll Over Stance Phase (Basic Pilates Stance): Begin in Basic Pilates Stance, lying on back with legs straight up, hips in 90 degree angle, extending through heels, small arch in lower back, arms by sides on floor. Inhale. Lower legs 6”.





Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi (eccentric)

Hip L&R:
Movement:Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius posterior fibers (eccentric)



2. Roll Over Prepatory Phase (trunk flexion to roll-over position): Exhale. Using lower abs, raise legs back to Pilates Stance and rock legs back while lifting hips. Continue using abdominals and draw hips and legs over until legs are parallel to chest. Release lower back. Keep chest open and use pressure from backs of arms and hands to help push over and stabilize the movement. Continue the deepening of the abdominals as you roll onto broad part of shoulders. Do not roll on to neck.


Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi
(eccentric)


Hip L&R:

Movement: Flexion
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): illiapsoas, rectus femoris, Sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, gluteus medius anterior fibers, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric)


3. Roll Over Movement Phase (roll over position to curl down position): Inhale. Flex feet, lengthen back of legs and send energy out through heels. Take legs to shoulder width apart. Exhale. Allow legs to lower toward chest as you use abdominal control to slowly place each vertebrae down on mat, one at a time.
:



Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)

Elbow L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi
(eccentric)


Hip L&R: Abduction & Extension

Movement: Abduction & Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): EXTENSION: Adductor magnus, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius posterior fibers (eccentric). ABDUCTION: Sartorius, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric)

4. Roll Over Recovery Phase (Basic Pilates Stance): When sacrum reaches floor, bring legs back together in Pilates Stance. Inhale. Bring legs together and lower slightly to begin again.





Shoulder Girdle L&R:
Movement: Stabilization
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): Pectoralis minor and lower trapezius (concentric)

Shoulder Joint L&R:
Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type):Latissimus dorsi, teres major, pectoralis major, subscapularis (concentric)


Elbow L&R:

Movement: Extension
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): triceps brachii, anconeus (eccentric)

Radioulnar joints L&R:
Movement: assist in extension of elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): exgtensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum (eccentric)

Wrist and Hand L&R:
Movement: Weak extension of the elbow
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi
(eccentric)


Hip L&R:

Movement: Flexion & Adduction
Agonist(s)-(contraction type): FLEXION: illiapsoas, rectus femoris, Sartorius, pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, gracilis, gluteus medius anterior fibers, gluteus minimus, tensor fasciae latae (concentric). ADDUCTION: Pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, gracilis (concentric)